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15.5 SUMMARY use servlet data matrix ecc200 development toincoporate data matrix with java RoyalMail4SCC In this chapter we brou j2ee Data Matrix 2d barcode ght together the various pieces of modeling and high-level development strategies discussed throughout this text to outline an overall plan of attack in developing mobile applications. Obviously, any development methodology, or component thereof, is only as valuable as the collective improvements in the ef ciency of the development process and the quality of the nal product. Once again, what we have outlined here is not necessarily a methodology, but rather the features that any development methodology addressing the problems of mobile application development must address.

Augment what we have introduced here with the experience that you gain as you develop mobile applications. In the remaining chapters, we will look at selecting the right infrastructure pieces for your mobile application, some of the typical hurdles in developing mobile applications, and the process of testing mobile applications..

C HAPTER 16 Architecture, Design, and Technology Selection for Mobile Applications We re gonna be rich! Jo s Bergmans (in 1999 while holding shares of AdForce, in which he would not be vested until after the company s demise during the post-Internet boom). 16.1 INTRODUCTION Much of what we have di scussed in this text has been focused on design problems and high-level approaches to building mobile applications. We have intentionally stayed away from a more syntactical-driven approach because languages and tools are evolving rapidly in the space of mobile applications. We have looked at a variety of design patterns and architectural solutions that address the problems associated with mobile applications.

In this chapter, we are going to take a step back, look at some very high-level architectures, and discuss how we should use them in building our mobile applications. In an abstract manner, a software system is to the domain problem it solves what the solution may be to a math problem. Through the years, mathematicians have re ned canonical solutions to a wide variety of mathematical problems.

Canonical, as de ned by the Webster dictionary, is an adjective for something conforming to a general rule or acceptable procedure. Much of the purpose of various elds of engineering is to de ne these canonical best practices and ways of doing things for given problems. A large part of the eld of software engineering involves de ning canonical solutions for developing software applications so that.

ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN, AND TECHNOLOGY every problem in buildi ng a software application does not have to be solved from scratch. To de ne these general rules and acceptable procedures, the software engineering discipline has borrowed concepts and terminologies from more established engineering disciplines such as structural engineering. In a physical sense, building software, at design stages, resembles building physical structures.

First, the builder assesses the requirements of the inhabitants of the structure. Then a highlevel overall plan or design that meets those needs is put together. Finally, the plan is implemented by carving out pieces of work and then building the structure.

Structural engineers and builders refer to the high-level overall plan as architecture. Architecture, as de ned by the Webster dictionary, is the art or science of building; speci cally: the art or practice of designing and building structures and especially habitable ones. Webster also de nes architecture as a method or style of building.

Through years of designing buildings, builders of structures discovered that one way to improve the design and creation process is to come up with typical ways of putting the structural pieces together and then use these methodologies to design a high-level plan of the structure, namely the architecture. So, the architecture of a building is largely the implementation of these canonical methods that allow engineers to create standard pieces to be used in structures (reuse), re ne the patterns of doing things in an evolutionary manner (tried-andtrue), and describe, compare, and contrast the structures. Architecture helped engineers in building complex physical structures to identify types of structures, divide the complicated problem of building them into pieces, and apply their bag of best ways and practices to create an overall scheme that ties together the pieces.

Finally, the IEEE 1471 de nes architecture to be the fundamental organization of a system embodied in its components, their relationships to each other and to the environment, and the principles guiding its design and evolution [IEEE 2000]. Much of the nature of software is similar to complex physical structures. Just as perceiving the overall and high-level plan of a building is one of the most dif cult and most important tasks an architect or structural engineer has, putting together a high-level organization of software components in an architecture can be a daunting task for a software engineer.

Software systems have no tangible representation which allows us to directly perceive the realization of the large scale abstractions which were used in the design. This makes it dif cult to identify them unambiguously and communicate them to others [Baragry and Reed 1998]. So, software architectures play the same role for software engineers that building architectures do for builders; they allow software engineers to get a high-level view of the computing systems and to divide and concur complex problems.

Also, they allow us to categorize computing systems by their architectures. So, as a summary of the various perspectives of architecture that we have discussed here, we will de ne software architecture to be a particularly high-level abstraction of the system and how its components t together. Designing the architecture of a software system should be the step immediately following the requirements-gathering process.

It is crucial that the system is designed before the tools of implementation are selected. One of the most prevalent.
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