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Glossary generate, create uss code 128 none on .net projects Microsoft Excel ness. Recently Code 128B for .NET Type Ia supernovae have become useful standard candles.

See also cosmological scale-factor, homogeneous, standard candle, supernova of Type Ia. Hubble time The time it would have taken the Universe to reach its present size if its expansion were constant in time. This is the reciprocal of the Hubble constant.

See also Hubble constant.. formed when the light re-combines. Changes in the difference between the arm-lengths change the pattern. Interferometers are used as gravitational wave detectors by making the ends of the two perpendicular arms free: when a gravitational wave comes along, it changes the lengths of the two arms in different ways, thereby creating a signal at the output.

See also bar detector.. hyperboloid A three-di Code 128 Code Set A for .NET mensional geometric gure obtained interstellar clouds Dense clumps of gas and dust in the Galaxy, where star formation occurs. by rotating a hyperbola about its axis of symmetry.

hypernova An unusually powerful supernova resulting from invariance Independence, the condition of being unchanged gravitational collapse, as does a supernova of Type II. See also when something else changes. In physics, this is used to describe systems that have a symmetry.

A system that is indegravitational collapse, supernova of Type II. pendent of time is time-invariant. If it is symmetrical under hypotenuse The long side of a right-angled triangle, opposite rotations, it is rotation-invariant.

In dynamics, systems that the right angle. are invariant have associated conserved quantities. The timeindices Labels attached to components of vectors or tensors to invariance of the spacetime of special relativity (Minkowski indicate which directions the components are associated with.

spacetime) insures that physical systems in special relativity have a conserved energy. The spherical symmetry of the nonSee also component, Pythagorean theorem. rotating black hole (Schwarzschild solution) insures that parinertia Essentially, the mass of a body.

The word is often used to ticles orbiting the hole have a conserved angular momentum. describe the property of a body that makes it resist acceleration See also conservation of angular momentum, conservation of and attempt to continue moving in a straight line. The concept energy, Minkowski spacetime, black holes.

is a little vague, and is made much more precise by Newton s laws of motion. Inertia is simply a property: something either invariant hyperbola The set of all events in the spacetime of has it or it does not. By contrast, mass is a quantity: it is mea- special relativity (Minkowski spacetime) that have a xed insured in kilograms in the si system, and it is meaningful to say terval from the origin.

This de nition is independent of the that one body has twice as much mass as another. In special rel- observer, so the set is invariant under a change of observer. The ativity, the word is applied to the special coordinate system, or set forms a hyperbola when drawn in just two dimensions, t 2 2 2 frame, that should be used by experimenters: an inertial frame.

and x, say, where the equation is c t - x = k for some xed k. See also Minkowski spacetime, spacetime-interval. See also mass, frame.

in ation In cosmology, the postulated period of time during inverse-square Depending inversely on the square of a variwhich the very early Universe expanded exponentially rapidly. able. In gravitation, the Newtonian gravitational force is pro2 Such a phase, if it occurred, would explain the homogeneity portional to 1/r , so it is an inverse-square law in the distance r of the Universe and many other observed properties.

See also from the source of gravity. negative pressure. ionized Having lost one or more electrons (said of atoms).

An infrared Region of the electromagnetic spectrum extending atom that has all of its electrons is charge-neutral. If one or from the red end of the visible spectrum to longer wavelengths, more are removed, it has a positive charge and is called a positypically from 0.7 m to about 1 mm.

See also microwave, X- tive ion. ray, gamma-rays, ultraviolet radiation, sub-millimeter. Irregular galaxy A galaxy that is not classi able as either spiral inhomogeneity Non-uniformity, condition of not being ho- or elliptical.

See also spiral galaxy, elliptical galaxy. mogeneous. See also homogeneous.

isothermal Literally, of uniform temperature. A gas that keeps innermost stable circular orbit A unique feature of orbits its temperature constant when it expands or compresses is said around black holes and other ultra-compact objects, which is to have an isothermal equation of state. not present in Newtonian gravity, is that there is an inner limit isotope Atoms of a given element must all have the same numto circular orbits; inside this limit, circular orbits exist but are ber of protons in their nuclei, and (unless ionized) the same unstable: any small disturbance or non-circularity will make number of electrons in orbit around the nucleus; but they do the orbit diverge rapidly from the original circular form.

These not have to have the same number of neutrons in the nucleus. orbits set limits on how far inwards an accretion disk can ex- The chemistry of the element depends on its charged particles; tend. See also accretion disk.

neutrons are important only because they help to hold the nuinterferometer An instrument designed to measure with great sensitivity changes in the difference between two lengths. The lengths are called the arms of the instrument, and the measurement technique is to split coherent light along the two arms, re ect it from the ends and look at the interference pattern cleus together by the strong interaction. Atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons are said to be different isotopes of the element.

See also ionized, chemical elements, nucleus, proton, electron, deuterium, strong interaction..
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