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P2 2 b2 in .NET Incoporate qr codes in .NET P2 2 b2




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P2 2 b2 using barcode creator for none control to generate, create none image in none applications. About QR Code where wp = permanen none none t set of plate de ection under impact-pressure actions; and w = permanent set de ection at the impact direction time equal to the natural p period (T) of plating. The natural period of steel plating under dynamic lateral pressure is calculated, approximately, as follows (KR 1997): T= 1 , fn (5.23).

n D where fn = 2 b 2 t for square plates, with n = 19.74 for simply supported edges, D and n = 35.98 for clamped edges; fn = r t for rectangular plates with r as 2b2 3 Et depicted in Figure 5.

9; D = 12(1 2 ) ; a, b, t, = as de ned in Eq. (5.20); E = elastic modulus; and = Poisson ratio.

. 5.6 Permanent Set De ection Limits: Under Impact-Pressure Actions Simple support Fixed support 0.0 0 1 2 3. Figure 5.9. Coef cient r for determining the natural period of a rectangular plate. 5.6.2 Longitudinall y Stiffened Panels between Transverse Frames When the pressure pulse is not very large, the relatively heavier transverse frames in a grillage that is, the overall cross-stiffened gross panel may not fail until the uniaxially stiffened panel between transverse frames fail.

In this case, the uniaxially stiffened panel between the two adjacent transverse frames may be modeled by a plate-stiffener combination clamped at both ends as representative of the panel, as shown in Figure 5.1. Jones (1997) derived a closed-form expression for the permanent set of a beam de ecting under impact pressure when the strain-rate effect is not accounted for, as follows [for symbols not de ned below, refer to Eq.

(5.21)]: wp 1 = teq 2. V2 a2 o bt2 3 4. 1 ,. (5.24). o where = 16Mp te none none q ; Mp = 4 eq ; o = ow stress taking into account the strainhardening effect, which may be taken as o = Y + T ; Y = yield stress; and T = ulti2 t mate tensile stress; and teq = equivalent thickness, which is given by teq = bt+hwbw +bf tf , with the nomenclature presented in Figure 5.10. When the strain-rate effect is accounted for, Eq.

(5.24) becomes a nonlinear function of the strain-rate effect, by replacing o (static ow stress) in Eq. (5.

24) with od (dynamic ow stress), as follows [for symbols not speci ed below, see Eq. (5.21)]:.

f2 ( , wp ) . wp = 0, t (5.25). Serviceability Limit-State Design t N. tw tf bf zo A. x z a Figure 5.10. A plat none none e-stiffener combination model clamped at both ends, representing a uniaxially stiffened panel between transverse frames and subject to an impact-line load, q = pb.

. where f2 ( , wp ) = nonlinear function for interframe panel as variables of and od bt2 V2 a2 V wp ; = 16Mop teq ; Mp = 4 eq ; od = {1 + ( 2wpoC )1/Q } o ; and C, Q = as de ned in Eq. (5.22).

5.6.3 Cross-Stiffened Plate Structures When the pressure pulse is very large and/or the transverse frames are relatively weak, the transverse frames may be postulated to fail together with longitudinal stiffeners and as plating.

In this case, the cross-stiffened panel or grillage may be idealized as an orthotropic plate. The permanent set of the orthotropic panel de ection may be calculated, approximately, by a method similar to that for plating described in Section 5.6.

1, but with the equivalent plate thickness for an orthotropic plate, which may be given by smearing that is, uniformly distributing all (both longitudinal and transverse) support members into the plating in terms of volume of the structure, as follows [for symbols not de ned below, refer to Eq. (5.21) and the nomenclature of Figure 5.

1]: teq = V , LB (5.26). where V = total vol none for none ume of the cross-stiffened plate structure. Although Eqs. (5.

20) and (5.21) will be used for calculating the permanent set de ection, the related parameters including impact-energy parameter will be calculated from the following equations: = = 1+.
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