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Anita Bernstein using .net toincoporate 2d data matrix barcode on asp.net web,windows application Code-27 Seibel in 1990.48 Year of Mic .NET gs1 datamatrix barcode rocredit 2005, a nonpro t corporation registered in the United States, suggests that microcredit is a subset of micro nance :.

Microcredit is a small amount of money loaned to a client by a bank or other institution. Micro nance refers to loans, savings, insurance, transfer services, microcredit loans and other nancial products targeted at low-income clients.49.

Respecting the distinction be 2d Data Matrix barcode for .NET tween these two terms, this chapter examines the virtues and limitations of distributing reparations bene ts in the form of micro nance: that is, by giving bene ciaries new opportunities for savings and credit rather than loans.50 The appeal to micro nance instruments rather than microcredit is consistent with a crucial characteristic of reparations: as complete or perfect transfers, they come with no obligation to be returned.

Loans, credits, and exhortations to the poor to cultivate their inner entrepreneur are different from the transfer of wealth. Identi ed victims of serious human rights violations hold no responsibility for earning and paying for their own reparations.51 Choosing among Means to Convey Pecuniary Reparations through Micro nance Continuing the theme of going beyond credit to include an array of nancial activities, the general plan offered here, derived from work by the development economist Hans Dieter Seibel and others, would establish recipients of reparations payments as shareholders in micro nance institutions.

The transfer. Hans Dieter Seibel, Does His tory Matter The Old and the New World of Micro nance in Europe and Asia, University of Cologne Development Research Center, October 2005, 1 n.1, http://www.uni-koeln.

de/ew-fak/aef/10 2005/2005 10%20The%20Old%20and%20the% 20New%20World%20in%20Europe%20and%20Asia.pdf. http://www.

yearofmicrocredit.org/pages/whyayear/whyayear aboutmicro nance.asp.

The definition reserves low-income clients for micro nance only, leaving open the possibility that high-income clients might partake of microcredit. In common parlance, however, they do not: high-income borrowers do not need small loans. See also Micro Capital Institute, The Social Impact of Commercial Micro nance, http://microcapital.

org/downloads/whitepapers/Social .pdf, 4 (noting that loan size can be used as a proxy for the social aspects of micro nance ). This section sweeps past an extensive bitter political battle over the two words.

The United Nations year, for instance, is of microcredit rather than micro nance, despite lobbying for micro nance by nongovernmental organizations. Connie Bruck, Millions for Millions, The New Yorker, October 30, 2006. For a victory of micro nance over microcredit, see Stephanie Strom, What s Wrong with Pro t The New York Times, November 13, 2006, Giving Section, 1, 12 (noting $100 million donation of Pierre Omidyar to Tufts University as earmarked for developing micro nance ).

References to microcredit arise occasionally in this chapter, however, because the development literature often uses this term when it intends the wider menu of micro nance.. Tort Theory, Micro nance, and Gender Equality Convergent payment from government to ci tizen-victims would take the form of shares. For this purpose, a micro nance institution is an entity that provides nancial services at least credit and savings, possibly others to customers who would normally be considered too poor for a bank to pro t from serving them.52 Micro nance institutions can be, in Seibel s helpful tripartite scheme, either formal, semiformal, or informal.

The rst category of formal institutions includes, or resembles, banking in the developed world: an institution (typically a bank or nance company) functions under regulation and supervision by a governmental authority. Semiformal institutions are registered but not regulated as nancial entities. They include savings and loan cooperatives and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provide credit.

53 Informal institutions, including low-level moneylenders and self-help groups, are neither regulated nor registered, although their activities may fall within customary law.54 Governments going the informal route would make reparations payments in the form of shares in existing unregulated, unregistered local institutions.55 Accountability, transparency, and protection of the rights and interests of shareholders and those who deal with them commend a preference for formal or semiformal entities as reparations vehicles, unless only informal institutions are available during the nation s transition.

Absent a minimal degree of economic development and stability, informal institutions could join the plan with the understanding that their connection to a government program demands a degree of extra oversight. Engagement with national reparations would necessarily push the institution upward toward the semiformal category. One common starting place for a reparations program, feasible in most countries that have begun to emerge from crisis and falling under the semiformal category of micro nance institution, is the credit NGO.

A credit NGO typically offers small loans, often along with other interventions (education, counseling, health care), to its low-income clientele.56 Capitalized by external donor agencies, this entity would have been at work inside the strife-torn country before the government starts to disburse its reparations payments. A reparations program could partner with a credit NGO in a transitional relationship aimed ultimately at forming a freestanding nancial institution that.

52 53. 54 55. Seibel, Reparations Sharehold ECC200 for .NET ers, 1 2. The Grameen Bank started out as a credit NGO, funded rst by soft loans and grants before becoming more self-sustaining.

Bruck, Millions. Seibel, Reparations Shareholders, 1 n.2.

See generally Douglas Snow, Microcredit: An Institutional Development Opportunity, http://spaef.com/IJED PUB/v1n1 snow.html ( Sustainable microcredit programs must be embedded in the network of existing local institutions ).

Seibel, Reparations Shareholders, 8 9..
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