Figure 7.2. Desired PC interconnect architecture. in .NET Generator ECC200 in .NET Figure 7.2. Desired PC interconnect architecture.

How to generate, print barcode using .NET, Java sdk library control with example project source code free download:
Figure 7.2. Desired PC interconnect architecture. using visual .net toget datamatrix with web,windows application Beaware of Malicious QR Codes We see in Figu gs1 datamatrix barcode for .NET re 7.2 that we"d like to support many applications running on the PC, each of which wants to independently access a smart card.

We"d like for each application to be able to use an API to establish a connection to a specific smart card. The API for each smart card should have the services of the general operating system at its disposal in order to effect the desired connection with a specific smart card that is plugged into a specific smart card reader. We don"t want to have to deal (at the application level) with any eccentricities of this specific smart card reader; we"d like the smart card protocol stack to make all the readers look the same.

Smart card readers are not standard elements of PC architectures. Rather, we have varieties of smart card readers that interface to PCs through standard I/O ports into the PC system; perhaps a serial port, perhaps a parallel port, perhaps some other. We expect the differences between the specific I/O port used and the specific smart card reader connected to that port, to be "normalized" by a standard device driver architecture within the operating system.

Thus, again looking at Figure 7.2, a specific application connects to a specific smart card by using the intervening PC system as a general switch. If one happens to manufacture smart card readers, or smart cards for that matter, and standardization washes out all prospects for product innovation to distinguish competitors from each other, then you have a pretty poor reason for being in the business.

So, the trick is to establish standards to stabilize the marketplace and avoid application systems being forced into single source situations. However, the standards must allow sufficient space for product differentiation. These are the guiding principles of most standardization efforts, be they driven by international standards bodies, industry consortia, or even individual companies.

Of course, it"s the continued efforts of a wide range of participants that keeps the process (in some fashion) "honest.". Smart Card Protocol Stacks Every smart ca barcode data matrix for .NET rd vendor, for many years now, has provided a proprietary software package that will allow its smart cards and smart card readers to be used on general-purpose computer systems. Over the last several years, however, a number of efforts have been initiated to develop "standard" smart card software stacks on a variety of general computer platforms.

The best known and most successful of these efforts are the Personal Computer/Smart Card (PC/SC) Workgroup Open Card Framework (OCF) Small Terminal Interoperability Platform (STIP). In 5, we disc ussed another specification called EMV. EMV is a specification for both off-card and on-card environments developed as a joint effort by Europay, MasterCard, and Visa. The specification is aimed at infrastructures for large-scale deployment of multiapplication cards based around financial transaction systems.

EMV finds its way into all of the general PC-based infrastructures that we"ve mentioned here through the manner in which applications are named (on multiapplication cards), the way that they are accessed on multiapplication cards, and in electrical characteristics. We won"t cover the EMV terminal specifications further in this book, choosing rather to concentrate on the more general smart card stacks that you"ll likely encounter in smart card applications developed for general purpose computing platforms. The EMV application access methods were discussed in 5.

The OCF effort has evolved into an excellent open source platform for supporting smart cards on full-scale Java-oriented computing platforms. A quite good description of OCF is found in the book, Smart Card Application Development Using Java (Hansmann et al. 2000).

The PC/SC effort has evolved a smart card stack that has proven applicable to a variety of general computer platforms, and it will be the focus of our considerations in this chapter. The STIP effort is aimed (as the name implies) at small terminal platforms, developed in Java; it is gaining popularity among terminal manufacturers. This specification is being developed through close cooperation between the STIP group and the Global Platform consortium.

In the following sections, we"ll primarily consider the PC/SC architecture along with a brief overview of the STIP architecture..
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