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EVOLUTION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS in .NET Draw code-128c in .NET EVOLUTION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS




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9.2 EVOLUTION OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS using none toprint none on asp.net web,windows application barcode ean8 9 SSI MSI LSI VLSI ULSI GSI Power PC 586 (Pentium). Z80 D 6800 6502 / none for none 4004 103 1960. Figure 9-2 Moore" s law for integrated circuits: Exponential increase in transistor count as a function of time for different generations of microprocessors. The dashed line indicates projections based on the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). Notice that the transistor count in the future may not increase at the same rate as in the past, due to practical constraints such as economics and power dissipation.

. Integrated Circuits Nanotechnology Blood cell -* . Nv 16K \ 256K 4M NO 64M 256M Bacteria -*IG -. 0.1 \ 4G N. 16G " N^G Virus * > i i l i i i i 1 " 1990. 1 _l. 1 i 2000 Year Figure 9-3 Expone ntial decrease in typical feature size with time for different generations of dynamic randomaccess memories (16-kbto 32-Gb DRAMs). For reference, sizes of blood cells, bacteria, and viruses are shown on the urn scale. The dashed line indicates projections based on the ITRS.

Dimensions below 100 nm are considered to be in the realm of nanotechnology.. chips require dev none for none ice fabrication in extremely clean environments. Particles that may not have caused yield problems in a l-p-m IC technology can have catastrophic effects for a 0.25-u,m process, which requires purer chemicals, cleaner equipment, and more stringent clean rooms.

In fact, the levels of cleanliness required bypassed the best surgical operating rooms early in the evolution shown in Fig. 9-3. The cleanliness of these facilities is designated by the class of the clean room.

For instance, a Class 1 clean room, which was state-of-the-art in 2000, has less than 1 particle of size 0.2 u,m or larger per cubic foot. There are more of the smaller particles and fewer of the larger ones.

Obviously, the lower the class of a clean room, the better it is. A Class 1 clean room is much cleaner than a Class 100 fabrication facility, or "fab." As one might expect, such high levels of cleanliness come with a hefty price tag: A state-of-the-art fab in 2000 comes equipped with a price tag of about 2 billion dollars.

In spite of the costs, the economic payoff for ULSI is tremendous. Just for calibration, let us examine some economic statistics at the dawn of the third millennium. The total annual economic output of all the countries in the world, or the so-called gross world product (GWP), is about 50 trillion US dollars.

The US gross national product is about 10 trillion dollars, or about a fifth of the GWP. The worldwide IC industry output is about 200 billion dollars, and that of the entire worldwide electronics industry in which these ICs. 9 . participate is ab none for none out 1 trillion dollars. As a single industry, electronics is one of the biggest in terms of the dollar amount. It has surpassed, for example, automobiles (worldwide sales of about 50 million cars annually) and petrochemicals.

About 100-200 million personal computers are sold annually worldwide. Perhaps even more dramatic than these raw economic numbers is the growth rate of these markets. If one were to plot IC sales as a function of time, one again finds a more-or-less exponential increase in sales with time over three decades.

Of great importance to the consumer, the cost per electronic function has dropped dramatically over the same period. For example, the cost per bit of semiconductor memory (DRAM) has dropped from about 1 cent/bit in 1970 to about 10~4 cent per bit today, an improvement of four orders of magnitude in 30 years. There are no parallels in any other industry for this consistent improvement in functionality with such lowered cost.

While ICs started with bipolar processes in the 1960s, they were gradually supplanted by MOS and then CMOS devices, for reasons discussed in s 6 and 7. Currently, about 88% of the IC market is MOS based and about 8% BJT based. Optoelectronic devices based on compound semiconductors are still a relatively small component of the semiconductor market (about 4%), but are expected to grow in the future.

Of the MOS ICs, the bulk are digital ICs. Of the entire semiconductor industry, only about 14% are analog ICs. Semiconductor memories such as DRAMs, SRAMs, and nonvolatile flash memories make up approximately 25% of the market, microprocessors about 25%, and other application-specific ICs (ASICs) about 20%.

. 9.3 Now we shall consider the various elements that make up an integrated cirMONOLITHIC cuit, and some of the steps in their fabrication. The basic elements are fairly DEVICE ELEMENTS easy to name transistors, resistors, capacitors, and some form of interconnection.

There are some elements in integrated circuits, however, which do not have simple counterparts in discrete devices. We shall consider one of these, charge transfer devices, in Section 9.4.

Discussion of fabrication technology is difficult in a book of this type, since device fabrication engineers seem to make changes faster than typesetters do! Since this important and fascinating field is changing so rapidly, the reader should obtain a basic understanding of device design and processing from this discussion and then search out new innovations in the current literature..
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