CMOS BISTABLES in Software Implementation 39 barcode in Software CMOS BISTABLES

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8.2 CMOS BISTABLES using software toinclude code39 on web,windows application upc simple latch function latch clock preparation non-inverting gate merged into one D1 D2 D3 D1 D2 D3 input buffer input logic switched memory loop output buffer Fig. 8.21 Embedding Software barcode 39 a 3-input and into a latch in search of maximum performance or energy e ciency.

. capacitances and cr ossover currents, which explains why the trick is occasionally being played in the context of low-power design. The idea has a longer tradition in high-speed, circuits, where it proves bene cial whenever a few gate delays can be collapsed into one which, while larger than the individual contributions, is smaller than their sum.21 Taking advantage of these bene ts in cell-based designs requires an extended cell library that includes not only the regular bistables but also combined functions such as 2- and 3-input orlatches, and-latches, an xor- and an eqv-latch, plus various AOI-latches.

22. 8.2.3 Single-edge-triggered ip- ops Most ip- ops opera te as single-edge-triggered bistables, a behavior that can be obtained in several ways. The most popular approach cascades two (level-sensistive) latches and drives them from a common clock such that one of them is in hold mode while the other is in pass mode and vice versa, see g.8.

22. The up-stream latch reads from the input terminal and is referred to as master while the down-stream latch termed slave drives the output, hence the name master slave ip- op for this circuit arrangement. The two latches cooperate as follows.

ip- op triggered on rising edge falling edge master slave master slave pass hold hold pass hold pass pass hold. CLK 0 1 You m ay want to re fer back to section 6.2.6 for inform ation on how function latches relate to clo cking disciplines.

Incidentally, note that emb edding logic into a bistable seem s particularly attractive in conjunction with dual-rail high-sp eed logic b ecause a total of four distinct op erations can b e obtained from a single nand-nor-latch sim ply by crossing over the input and/or output lines. It is obviously p ossible to play the sam e trick once again at a bistable s output Q or Q by substituting a nand or a nor gate for the inverter there [203]. As an ultim ate consequence, this would ask for a cell library that encom passes the Cartesian pro duct of all input and output functions of up to three variables including, as an exam ple, the 3-input or latch nanded with a 2-input and latch .

It thus seem s preferable to write a software to ol that assembles function latches on the y from logic gates and basic m em ory lo ops with no input and output bu ers as the overall numb er of library cells m ight otherwise get out of hand.. Design of VLSI Circuits At the active clock edge, the master stores the data present at its input while the slave becomes transparent. At the passive clock edge, it is the master that becomes transparent while the slave holds the previous output. The transfer of data from the master to the slave is internal to the circuit and cannot be observed from outside.

Thus, the overall behavior is indeed that of a single-edgetriggered ip- op (SETFF). In the occurrence of g.8.

22b, the active edge is the rising or which is the same the positive one. The opposite applies to g.8.

22d.. rising-edge-triggered flip-flop master CLK D Q Q D CLK D Q slave CLK D Q Q Q Q falling-edge-triggered flip-flop master CLK D Q Q D CLK D Q slave CLK D Q Q Q Q Fig. 8.22 Single-ed barcode 3 of 9 for None ge-triggered D-type master slave ip- ops.

Icons (a,c) and general circuit arrangements (b,d).. Detailed schematics are readily obtained from assembling the necessary building blocks from g.8.20.

This has been done in gs.8.23 and 8.

47 for a D-type ip- op equipped with an asychronous reset mechanism. The table below summarizes the resulting transistor counts. transistor count for a static CMOS master slave ip- op input bu er/inverter master latch slave latch output bu ers clock preparation async.

reset facility total in gate equiv. [GE] toggling with clock circuit design style jamb groundclocked latch cycled inverters loop 2 8 8 4 4 2 28 7 8 2 8 8 4 4 2 26 6.5 12 0 6 6 4 8 2 26 6.

5 8.
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