Scopes of IC manufacturing services in Software Add barcode 3 of 9 in Software Scopes of IC manufacturing services

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13.3.2 Scopes of IC manufacturing services using software todeploy barcode 3/9 in web,windows application Overview of GS1 General Specification ASIC customers must also dec ANSI/AIM Code 39 for None ide how to have their design manufactured. Various options exist because VLSI fabrication not only consists of wafer processing but also includes activities such as. The reasons for this are given in sections 2.2.1 and 2.3. 13.3 INTERFACING WITHIN THE ASIC INDUSTRY Algorithm design Architectur e design RTL design Gate-level synthesis Floorplanning Back-end design Chip finishing (seal ring, alignment marks) Mask or reticle preparation Wafer processing Process monitoring and wafer sorting (PCMs) Wafer testing (probe card) Thinning and singulation Encapsulation Final testing. behavioral model handoff arc Software 39 barcode hitecture handoff RTL handoff netlist handoff floorplan handoff full-layout handoff design house raw wafers. scrap silicon foundry COT ASIC manufacturer test & assembly integrated device service manufacturer provider good parts Fig. 13.7 Hando points and ASIC manufacturing services (yield not drawn to scale).

. chip nishing, mask preparat barcode code39 for None ion, volume testing, and packaging. How these are being handled bears upon business and liability issues..

1. ASIC manufacturing servic e In addition to manufacturing, the vendor does the testing of the ASICs on behalf of the customer and typically delivers packaged components ready to go. He sorts out the defective parts and makes the customer pay only for those ICs that conform with functional and electrical speci cations.

The functional specs are embodied in a set of test vectors to be supplied by the circuit designer. The risk of poor yield and, hence, also the incentive for yield enhancement rest entirely with the manufacturer. This practice, depicted in g.

13.6, represents the standard business model for many commercial full- and semi-custom ASICs. For obvious reasons, the ASIC manufacturer wants to make sure a design is safe before committing himself to such a venture.

Design data and test vectors are, therefore, subject to a series of thorough checks before sign-o , i.e. before the design is accepted for manufacturing.

As an extra bene t, design aws and manufacturability problems are more likely to get uncovered when designs get scrutinized by two independent parties. Similarly, a manufacturer. Design of VLSI Circuits encourages his customers to rely on design kits and cell libraries that meet his own quality standards and that have won his approval. The ASIC manufacturer is basically free to recover his costs by charging a one-time payment or by adding a small fee to the sales price of each chip he delivers. His attitude is likely to depend on the anticipated IC manufacturing business, but design kits are quite often delivered free or almost so in order to attract fabrication business.

2. Foundry service According to the alternative foundry service model, testing at the manufacturing site is essentially limited to process-control monitors (PCMs). Provided PCM measurements indicate that process outcome is within normal tolerances, wafers or dies are delivered with nothing but visual inspection.

The customer is then in charge of organizing the testing and the packaging of his circuits. More importantly, the customer not only assumes the risks of design aws, but also of substandard manufacturability,8 of mask defects, of inadequate die handling, and of an unsatisfactory packaging process, all of which are detrimental to overall yield. By the same token, the foundry declines any liability for imperfect library cells.

In return, foundry service is cheaper and review of incoming design data by the manufacturer is mild when compared with the ASIC manufacturer model. As a consequence, this division of workload and accountability is most appropriate for prototype fabrication. 3.

Customer-owned tooling (COT) COT goes one step further in that the manufacturer focusses on pushing wafer lots through his fabrication line on order, followed by evaluating PCM data. Everything else, including mask preparation and supply chain management, falls within the responsibility of the customer. This modus operandi is gaining acceptance with customers that order ASICs in very large quantities because they are thus put in a position to negotiate optimum conditions with separate contractors for licensing of cell libraries, mask preparation, wafer processing, testing, packaging, and the like.

Also, the indispensable involvement with design for manufacturing (DFM) gives them more control over yield and other key cost factors. However, COT is also the most demanding business model in terms of expertise required from customers. Luckily, a number of companies have begun to o er all test and assembly services that come after wafer processing, including supply chain management.

9 Observation 13.1. The standard industrial practice is to order fully quali ed parts from an ASIC manufacturer.

Foundry services appeal to research-type activities that combine it with home testing and to large-volume manufacturing. Experienced customers can take advantage of COT in conjunction with extensive subcontracting and supply chain management..

Such as a p oor com pliance Software 3 of 9 barcode with the lithographic process, an excessive sensitivity to all sorts of param eter variations, and other issues related to design for m anufacturing (DFM ). Am kor, ASE, and STATSChipPac are just three exam ples..

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