Kant s kingdom of ends: metaphysical, not political in .NET Create ECC200 in .NET Kant s kingdom of ends: metaphysical, not political

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Kant s kingdom of ends: metaphysical, not political use .net data matrix encoder togenerate datamatrix on .net barcode ean8 being as such Data Matrix ECC200 for .NET (G IV 412), his starting point is neither anthropology, nor theology or hyper-physics, but a non-empirical concept of practical reason which he claims we employ in everyday moral discourse. We implicitly presuppose non-sensible ideas in our moral assumptions about and interactions with one another.

It is in connection with Kant s analysis of this everyday, non-empirical concept of a rational being that Groundwork II introduces, as we shall see, a number of substantive metaphysical propositions regarding the nature and ends of the rational willing of such a being without which the inquiry could not proceed. The decisive contrast between speculative metaphysics and Kant s practical approach lies not in the latter s formalism in contrast to the former s substantive assertions, but in Kant s acknowledgement of the theoretical non-vindicability of his substantive metaphysical presuppositions: by the end of the inquiry in Groundwork III it has become clear that although, in so far as we act morally, we necessarily think ourselves members of a possible intelligible order, we must yet acknowledge that we have no way of proving the independent reality of this practically necessary, metaphysically substantive self-conception. When in the following I refer to Kant s substantive practical metaphysics, I have in mind the non-empirical substantive content which he claims we must assign our practical concepts in the course of philosophical inquiry into them whilst yet acknowledging the nonprovability of the concept-independent existence of the entities and powers thus posited.

7 3 the place of the kingdom of ends formula in groundwork ii Apart from recent politically oriented interpretations, the kingdom of ends formulation remains the perhaps least discussed among Kant s three variants of the categorical imperative s basic formulation, the formula of universal law, which exhorts us to act only on that maxim through which you can at the same time will that it should become a universal law (G IV 421).8 There is some uncertainty as to how far it is even appropriate to speak. I o er a more extended defence of Kant s practical metaphysics in Katrin Flikschuh, Kant s Indemonstrable Postulate of Right: A Response to Paul Guyer , Kantian Review 12 (2007), 1 39. The precise number of formulae of the categorical imperative, and of the relations between them, remains subject to debate. In his in uential edition of the Groundwork, H.

J. Paton identi ed the formula of a law of nature (FULN) as well as the formula of autonomy (FA), as additional to the formulae of universal law (FUL), of humanity as an end-in-itself (FHE), and of the kingdom of ends (FKE). Most others have focused their interpretative attention on the relation between FUL,.

katrin ikschuh of the kingdo m of ends formula (FKE) as a distinct, action-guiding variant of the categorical imperative. In contrast to the law of nature formula (FULN) as well as that of humanity as an end-in-itself (FHE), FKE is not initially stated as a single second-order practical principle .9 Whereas FULN tells us to act as if the maxim of your action were to become by your will a universal law of nature (G IV 421), and FHE demands that we act in such a way that you always treat humanity, whether in your own person or in the person of any other, never simply as a means, but always at the same time as an end (G IV 429), FKE represents a systematic union of di erent rational beings under common laws conceived in accordance with the above principles (G IV 433).

In his summary of the three variants of the basic formulation, Kant says of FKE that it yields the complete determination of maxims (G IV 436) in accordance with FULN as the form and FHE as the content of universal law. One thus arrives at FKE through the conjunction of the preceding two variants of the basic formulation, and although the formal principle for FKE is nally stated in the last few pages of Groundwork II so act as if your maxims had to serve at the same time as universal law (for all rational beings) (G IV 438) it is not immediately clear what precisely FKE, thus articulated, adds to FULN and FKE taken individually. The structural similarity of the complete determination characterization of FKE to the threefold division of categories in the rst Critique is pointed out by Kant himself (G IV 436).

In CrV Kant remarks in relation to the table of categories that the third category in each class always arises from the combination of the second category with the rst . He goes on to warn that (CrV B110 11):. it must not b .net framework data matrix barcodes e supposed, however, that the third category is merely a derivative, and not a primary, concept of the pure understanding. For the combination of the rst and second concepts, in order that the third may be produced, requires a special act of the understanding, which is not identical with that which is exercised in the case of the rst and the second.

. We should sim ilarly assume the non-derivative status of FKE: the combination of FULN and FHE into FKE does not simply follow as a corollary of. FHE and FKE a .net framework datamatrix 2d barcode s the three most important formulae. See, e.

g. Onora O Neill, Universal Law and Ends-in-themselves in Constructions of Reason (Cambridge University Press, 1989), pp. 126 44; Arthur Melnick, Kant s Formulations of the Categorical Imperative , Kant-Studien 93 (2002), 291 308.

More recently, Jens Timmermann has argued that FUL constitutes the basic formulation of the categorical imperative, with FULN, FHE and FKE being the three variants of the basic formulation designed to bring the basic formula closer to intuition (Jens Timmermann (ed.), Grundlegung zur Metaphysik der Sitten (Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 2004), pp. 117 18 and 134).

I here follow Timmermann s suggestion. O Neill, Universal Law and Ends-in-themselves , p. 127.

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