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Search for the Supreme Principle of Morality using vs .net todraw barcode data matrix for web,windows application UPC Case Code with dignity, thereby Visual Studio .NET barcode data matrix saving several other such beings, it will not, it seems, be because it is legitimate to make an exchange of the (lesser) value inherent in the former with the (greater) value inherent in the latter. An end in itself (and thus humanity) has dignity in that it has an unconditional value that admits of no equivalent, not in terms of price, nor, it appears, even in terms of other beings with dignity.

We have found that to say that humanity is an end in itself is to imply that it is something that has an absolute and incomparable worth. But presumably if Kant calls humanity an end in itself, then in some sense he thinks of it as an end. In what sense, precisely This question is puzzling if one takes as a point of departure Kant s de nition of an end in the Metaphysics of Morals.

An end, he says, is an object of the will [Willk r] (of a rational u being), through the representation of which the will is determined to an action to bring this object about (MS 381; see also MS 384 385). In other words, an end is a state of affairs or event such that an agent, through her idea of it, is determined to will to realize it. An agent might, for example, have as an end to maintain his weight under two hundred pounds for the next six months or to win a tennis tournament.

An end on this account is a goal, aim, or target an object to be produced.29 Yet Kant suggests that humanity is not an end to be effected, but rather an independently existing [selbstst ndiger] end (GMS 437; see also MS 442). So in calling humanity an a end in itself, he must have a broader notion of an end in view.

Indeed, in the Groundwork, immediately before his derivation of the Formula of Humanity, Kant says that an end is what serves the will as the objective ground of its self-determination (GMS 427). An end is an objective ground of an agent s determining his will to an action. An end is a ground in that it is a reason that an agent has (or at least ought to have) for acting; an end is an objective ground in that it is an object such that, through representing it to himself, the agent gives himself (or at least ought to give himself) a reason for acting.

30 On this broader conception, ends are not limited to objects to be produced. They include any object the idea of which does (or ought to) give an agent a reason to act in a certain way. Someone s aim or goal of winning a tennis tournament might count as such an object, but so might an existent object such as her humanity.

And Kant, of course, thinks that humanity, wherever and whenever it manifests itself, counts as an end in this broad sense. It does so by virtue of its being absolutely and incomparably valuable. For Kant humanity exists as an end in itself, an unconditionally and incomparably valuable object the idea of which gives (or at least ought to give) all rational agents a reason for acting.

What does it mean to act so that one always treats humanity as an end in itself, as the Formula of Humanity commands Presumably one acts so that one treats humanity as an end in itself just in case what one wills to do is consistent with holding humanity to be of absolute and incomparable value. In the Groundwork, Kant calls rational nature (i.e.

, humanity) an object of respect. In the Metaphysics of Morals,.
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