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10 Nehemiah using .net framework toassign barcode code39 with web,windows application Microsoft SQL Server DEVELOPMENT OF PLACES OF REFUGE IN THE BIBLE to be the l east socially differentiated period in Israelite development. Legal thought and institutions were at their least developed as well. According to this opinion, the dating of the Covenant Code to the tribal period would be the launching point for extrapolating earlier stages in the adjudication of homicide.

The consensus on the date of the Covenant Code has been undermined in recent years. One line of attack on a tribal period for its dating has focused on recognizing reformist elements within the Code. Arguments for an eighth-century date utilize three proofs highlighting a reformist tendency: 1) The amalgam of literary forms that makes up the entire complex of the Covenant Code suggests the dissolution or deliberate combination of formerly separate legal traditions.

15 2) The presence of laws protecting the poor and regulating slavery for debt is evidence for a date well into the monarchy because there would be no need for them during the poor economic conditions of the prestate period.16 Slavery gained signi cance only during the later monarchic era. 3) The Covenant Code in its attention to the alien presupposes widespread population shifts, which would t well with the serious refugee problem dealt to Judah after the fall of the northern kingdom.

17 However, the proofs for an eighth-century date are awed. While it is true that the laws in the Covenant Code appear to have barely been reworked from their original formulation because texts of varying literary form had been placed side by side without any attempt to make thematic or linguistic unity, it is, however, possible to offer many different points in Israelite history when the combination of formerly separate legal traditions could have occurred. Other considerations are also equivocal.

First, laws addressing social issues appear in all the legal corpora of the Bible and would be applicable in almost any period of Israelite history. Second, the social conditions that would incur debt slavery were prevalent during most of the period of the. eighth seve Visual Studio .NET bar code 39 nth centuries. Henri Cazelles, L Auteur du Code de l Alliance, RB 52 (1945), 188, argues for a slightly earlier date, holding that Moses is the direct source.

15 Frank Crusemann, The Torah: Theology and Social History of Old Testament Law (trans. Allan W. Mahnke; Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1996), 165 169; Rainer Albertz, A History of Israelite Religion in the Old Testament Period (trans.

John Bowden; 1992; reprint, Louisville, Kentucky: Westminster/John Knox, 1994), 1.183 184. 16 One problem with this claim is the references to slave in biblical literature depicting the premonarchic period.

Crusemann argues that the term db[ in Joshua, Judges, and 1 and 2 Samuel was most often used as a polite designation for a subordinate speaking to a superior and, therefore, the use of the term for slave must date from the later centuries of the monarchy, not the tribal period nor the beginning of the monarchy (The Torah, 152). The real con ict during the early monarchy, according to Crusemann, was between the king and the people, not between free and slave, according to the evidence of 1 Sam 8:16 17. However, there were slaves even during the premonarchic period, and the word used for them was db[ there is no other term in Hebrew.

17 Albertz, A History of Israelite Religion, 1.183, 336, n. 166.

. HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD monarchy as .net vs 2010 Code 3 of 9 re ected in both historical texts (e.g.

, 2 Kgs 4:1 7) and in the social criticism of the prophets.18 Third, poor economic conditions were not the only circumstances under which a person might be sold into slavery. A thief who could not pay the penalty for his theft would become a slave: The thief s illegal act and his inability to pay, presumably because he was poor, were the circumstances that caused him to be sold into slavery.

Fourth, the absence of a king could be taken as surprising if the Deuteronomic laws, more rmly situated in the monarchic period, were replete with references to the royal establishment, but Deuteronomy makes only a few references to the institution of kingship (Deut 17:14 20). Fifth, the agrarian nature of the society re ected in the Covenant Code cannot serve as proof of an early date because Israelite society persisted in remaining agriculturally based in patrimonial estates throughout the First Temple period.19 Lastly, the Covenant Code does not exhibit archaic language, a characteristic expected of early texts and the only sure proof of an early date.

20 In general, it is dif cult to determine a speci c date for the Covenant Code. It appears, then, that its date cannot be chronologically set within any speci c time during the First Temple period. The second issue is whether the refuge mentioned in the Covenant Code is an altar.

In the statute, there are two references to places involved in the adjudication of homicide, one of which appears to be a safe haven, the other a place from which a killer can be taken. Exodus 21:13 14 reads, If [the killer] did not do it by design, but God caused it to meet his hand, I will assign you a place to which he can ee. When a man schemes against another and kills him treacherously, you shall take him from my very altar to be put to death.

The referent of a place to which he can ee in verse 13 is the crux of the matter. Does it refer to the altar mentioned in the following verse Some have argued that the implication of taking away a killer even from God s altar is that the place of asylum in Exod 21:13 is identical to the altar mentioned in Exod 21:14.21 However, if the statute in the rst verse was referring to the altar, why did it not simply state altar 22 The implication, thus, is that ! qt and jA y were distinct.

If so, two possibilities arise: 1) ! qt and jA y were two completely different places; 2) one was part of the other, the jA y being part of the ! qt.. 1.183 184. Two on the social structure of ancient Israel.

20 The Covenant Code does contain the phrase, htn[w htsk hra`, which appears to be a legal phrase of long usage. See Shalom M. Paul, Exod.

21:10: A Threefold Maintenance Clause, JNES 28 (1969), 48 53. 21 E.g.

, A. Graeme Auld, The Cities of Refuge in Israelite Tradition, JSOT 10 (1978), 135. 22 Cf.

Moshe Greenberg, The Biblical Conception of Asylum, in Studies in the Bible and Jewish Thought (JPS Scholar of Distinction Series; Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society, 1995), 43; Alexander Rof , The History of the Cities of Refuge in Biblical Law, in Studies in Bible e (ed. Sarah Japhet; ScrHier 31; Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1986), 205..

19 See 18 Ibid.,.
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