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TUAT Ukg. VAT VT WMANT YBC ZA ZAW ZSS generate, create gtin - 12 none in .net projects Java Symbols in Cu GTIN - 12 for .NET neiform Transliterations [ ] <> << >> x gaps or reconstructed text scribal omissions scribal super uity cuneiform sign that cannot be read. Acknowledgments THIS STUDY ha visual .net UPC-A Supplement 2 s its origins in a doctoral dissertation I completed at Harvard University. I would like to express my gratitude to my dissertation advisor, Professor Peter B.

Machinist, for his constant encouragement and kindness. His meticulous reading and his generous and consistently good advice have been indispensable to my work. He is a shining example of the best in scholarship and teaching.

Washington University in St. Louis granted a research leave in which I was able to completely restructure this study and advance the argument magnitudes further. Professor Shalom M.

Paul, with his brilliant mastery of biblical studies and Assyriology, provided inspiration and good counsel during the dif cult process of revision. I would like to thank Harvard University and the National Foundation for Jewish Culture for their support during my Ph.D.

studies. I am grateful for the support of Yad Hanadiv/Beracha Foundation and the Lady Davis Fellowship Trust for funding a research leave at Hebrew University. I would like to thank Rabbi Edward S.

Romm for his technical assistance during the preparation of the manuscript. I would also like to thank my students Corey M. Helfand and Evan I.

Weiner for checking the index for accuracy. s of this manuscript were presented as lectures at Hebrew University, Bar-Ilan University, and the Schechter Institute of Jewish Studies, as. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS well as at a UPC Code for .NET number of community forums. I am grateful for the questions and comments of the listeners.

This study has been greatly improved by suggestions from Gary A. Anderson and Charles Donahue, Jr. Avi Hurvitz and David Weisberg provided invaluable help.

Professor Gary Beckman generously provided assistance with the Hittite texts. Most of all, I would like to thank my parents, Sarah J. and Isadore Barmash, for providing a home lled with boundless love and encouragement.

. Introduction I BEGAN this UPC Code for .NET project interested in the question of how much of biblical law was transplanted from the law of the rest of the ancient Near East. It swiftly became obvious to me that I had to expand the scope of the project to examine the broader spectrum of procedures, institutions, and literary forms connected with the adjudication of homicide in the Hebrew Bible and its relationship to aspects of Israelite society and religion.

It is among the laws on homicide that the closest parallels between biblical law and ancient Near Eastern law are evident, in the statutes on the ox that gored and fatal assault on a pregnant woman, but a different picture comes into focus in the complete process by which homicide was adjudicated. Indeed, what is most noticeable is how little of the adjudication of homicide in the Hebrew Bible is similar to that of ancient Near Eastern law. It is essential to understand that the treatment of homicide in the Bible is dependent on the institutions and conceptual underpinnings of biblical society.

Biblical law did not come into existence in a vacuum, and law in general is part and parcel of a cultural system. Without such a holistic point of view, law could very easily be taken out of its context and misunderstood.1.

1 Shemaryahu Talmon, The Comparative Method in Biblical Interpretation Principles and Problems, Congress Volume: Gottingen (SVT 29; Leiden: Brill, 1978), 320 356 (reprinted in his Literary Studies in the Hebrew Bible: Form and Content [Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1993],. HOMICIDE IN THE BIBLICAL WORLD The treatment of homicide in the Bible is directly linked to aspects of biblical culture outside the legal sphere. Indeed, the contours of Israelite society and religion generated speci c institutions and principles. This study will highlight the relationship of biblical law to Israelite society and religion, allowing us to see how the adjudication of homicide t into the cultural pattern of Israelite society.

Law in the Bible must be investigated in its own environment before any meaningful or valid comparison can be made. Nonetheless, interpreting biblical law in its ancient Near Eastern context is also essential. The Bible did not come into existence in a vacuum.

Biblical culture and society stemmed from the cultures of the ancient Near East, especially that of Mesopotamia, whose in uence is felt in almost every chapter of the Hebrew Bible. The striking convergences and divergences in form and content between biblical law and ancient Near Eastern law with regard to homicide in particular have profound implications. (The law from the ancient Near East appears to be part of a common tradition, and since it is all written in cuneiform script, whether in Sumerian, Akkadian, or Hittite, it is called cuneiform law.

)2 Some scholars have focused on the question of how biblical writers knew of cuneiform law. Raymond Westbrook suggests that biblical writers actually possessed copies of ancient Near Eastern laws: Cuneiform law collections were literary works used as school texts in Canaanite scribal workshops and, by implication, were used the same way during the Israelite period.3 Reuven Yaron thinks that there was a common law throughout the ancient Near East, including ancient Israel, law that was sporadically put into writing, and that the similarities between biblical and cuneiform law re ect this common law.

4 Shalom M. Paul and J. J.

Finkelstein argue that biblical law and ancient Near Eastern law had a direct connection but that the exact method of transmission cannot be ascertained.5 Other scholars have focused on elucidating the guidelines by which cuneiform law was reworked. Moshe Greenberg argues that a general legal/theological principle of biblical law that contradicted a general principle of cuneiform law generated divergent law on the same subject despite biblical law s basis in.

11 49); David UPC Symbol for .NET P. Wright, The Disposal of Impurity (SBLDS 101; Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1987), 5 7.

2 The term cuneiform law was coined by Paul Koschaker, Keilschriftrecht, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenlandischen Gesellschaft 89 (1935), 26, and Forschungen und Ergebnisse in den keilschriftlichen Rechtsquellen, ZSS 49 (1929), 188 189. 3 Raymond Westbrook, Studies in Biblical and Cuneiform Law (CahRB 26; Paris: J. Gabalda, 1988), 2 3.

4 Reuven Yaron, The Laws of Eshnunna (revised edition: Jerusalem: Magnes Press, 1988), 294 295. 5 Shalom M. Paul, Studies in the Book of the Covenant in the Light of Cuneiform and Biblical Law (SVT 18; Leiden: E.

J. Brill, 1970), 104 105; J. J.

Finkelstein, The Ox That Gored (prepared for publication by Maria deJ. Ellis; Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 71/2; Philadelphia: The American Philosophical Society, 1981), 20..

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