The context of CSR in Visual Studio .NET Creation QR Code JIS X 0510 in Visual Studio .NET The context of CSR

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The context of CSR using barcode generating for .net control to generate, create qr-codes image in .net applications. Microsoft Windows Official Website Figure 3.1: Seismic survey wells were drilled wh ere oil seeped to the surface by itself or wells were drilled on instinct , and only occasionally might the oil company employ a geologist. Today, the oil and gas industry requires cuttingedge technical skills, ranging from satellite technology to 3D computer imaging, and oil companies employ whole armies of petroleum engineers and very specialised smaller subcontracting firms. Even before oil production takes place, oil operations already require substantial investment and substantial interactions with the government and local communities during exploration for oil.

Exploration requires so-called seismic surveys and exploration drilling. In a seismic survey, sound waves are sent into the earth s crust, where they are reflected by the different rock layers. The sound energy from a source on the surface bounces off the different rock layers and returns to the surface, where it is recorded by a detector (see Figure 3.

1). Surveys are carried out by seismic crews, which are usually subcontractors of oil companies and can include hundreds of men. The seismic crew measures the time taken for the wave to return to the surface, which reveals the depth of the layers and also indicates what types of rock lie beneath the surface (Hyne 1995).

In the sea and in riverine areas seismic surveys are carried out using boats equipped. Beyond Corporate Social Responsibility Figure 3.2: Seismic method at sea and in riverine areas with air guns which r QR Code JIS X 0510 for .NET elease compressed air (instead of explosives used in onshore areas) into the water surface. The equipment is towed in the water behind the boat (see Figure 3.

2). Following seismic surveys, drilling of exploration wells begins in areas where oil reserves are suspected. This may already involve the construction of some infrastructure, as vegetation may need to be cleared and access roads to the well site may need to be built (this does not apply to drilling in the sea).

Wells are drilled with rotary cutting tools with tough metal or diamond teeth that can bore through the hardest rock. These tools are suspended on a drilling string. During drilling operations, information about the oilfield at various depths is collected by examining drill cuttings, which are returned to the surface.

Drilling is the only way to exactly determine whether there is oil under the surface and to estimate its amount, although drilling costs can be very high, which puts a limit on the number of drilling sites. If there is no oil in commercial quantities, this so-called dry hole is plugged and abandoned. If oil is discovered in the exploration well, so-called appraisal wells are drilled in the area in order to establish the size of the field.

If the field is to be commercially exploited, some of these appraisal wells may later be used as so-called development wells for oil production (Hyne 1995). Once the production stage starts, an oil/gas/water mixture flows to the surface. Oil companies cannot pump oil alone, because gas and.

The context of CSR Figure 3.3: Typical oil production activities water are located in a petroleum trap together with the oil. Gas flows to the surface by itself because it is very light. Oil can sometimes flow to the surface by itself if there is enough pressure in the reservoir, but oil is more commonly brought to the surface artificially by pumps or other methods.

Once the natural reservoir drive has finished, water is injected into the earth s crust to force some of the remaining oil to flow to the surface (Hyne 1995). From the surface, the oil/gas/water mixture is transported through a pipe to a gathering station called a flowstation, where gas and liquids are separated. The oil is then either (1) transported through a pipeline directly to a local refinery; or (2) exported through a pipeline to a foreign refinery (e.

g., pipelines from Algeria and Libya to Western Europe); or (3) as is common in most developing economies transported to an export terminal on the coast where the crude oil is loaded on to tankers and shipped abroad (see Figure 3.3).

The basics of oil production in offshore areas are not very different, but the production techniques can be much more technologically sophisticated. In.
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